Some Terms and Informative knowledge about GSM.

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THIS IS ONE OF THE MOST IMPORTANT THINGS TO KNOW MORE ABOUT GSM RELATED TECHNOLOGY..
1G
The first generation of analogue mobile phone technologies including AMPS, TACS and NMT


2G
The second generation of digital mobile phone technologies including GSM, CDMA IS-95 and D-AMPS IS-136


2.5G
The enhancement of GSM which includes technologies such as GPRS


3G
The third generation of mobile phone technologies covered by the ITU IMT-2000 family


3GPP
The 3rd Generation Partnership Project, a grouping of international standards bodies, operators and vendors with the responsibility of standardizing the WCDMA based members of the IMT-2000 family


3GPP2
The counterpart of 3GPP with responsibility for standardizing the CDMA2000-based members of the IMT-2000 family. 3GPP2 is spearheaded by ANSI


8PSK
Octantal Phase Shift Keying


AAL - ATM Adaptation Layer


A-bis = Interface between the BSC and BTS in a GSM network
AB - Access Burst
used for random access and characterized by a longer guard period to allow for burst transmission from a MS that does not know the correct timing advance when first contacting a network


ABR - Available Bit Rate


AC - Alternating Current ( the standard electricity type )
ACCH - Analog Control Channel
ACTS - Advanced Communications Technologies and Services.
a European technology initiative
ACU - Antenna Combining Unit


AC Charger :an accessory device that allows you to power and/or charge your phone from a wall outlet


ADC - Analog to Digital Converter


Advice of charge:A service which provides the user with information on the cost of calls from a mobile phone


AFC - Automatic Frequency Control


AGC - Automatic Gain Control


AGCH - Access Grant Channel; downlink only, BTS allocates a TCH or SDCCH to the MS, allowing it access to the network


A-interface :Interface between the MSC and BSS in a GSM network




AM - Amplitude Modulation


AMPS - Advanced Mobile Phone Service
Advanced Mobile Phone System (AMPS) is the analog mobile phone system standard developed by Bell Labs, and officially introduced in the Americas in 1983. It was the primary analog mobile phone system in North America (and other locales) through the 1980s and into the 2000s, and is still widely available today, although use has dropped considerably with the introduction of various digital standards.


Total Access Communication System (TACS) and ETACS are mostly-obsolete variants of AMPS which were used in some European countries (including the UK). TACS was also used in Japan under the name Japanese Total Access Communication (JTAC).




AMR - Adaptive Multi-Rate codec.
Developed in 1999 for use in GSM networks, the AMRhas been adopted by 3GPP for 3G.


Analogue:
The representation of information by a continuously variable physical quantity such as voltage.




Antenna:
a part of a cell phone that receives and transmits cellular radio-frequency transmissions.




ASCII-American Standard Code for Information Interchange


ASIC - Application Specific Integrated Circuit
Electronic chips designed for some concrete purposes (for example, in phone it controls communication between MCU and DSP) They're designed and produced by the companies which use them.


ATM-Asynchronous Transfer Mode; a multiplexed information transfer and switching method in which the data is organised into fixed length 53-octet cells and transmitted according to each application’s instantaneous need


AVCH - Analog Voice Channel


BB5 - base band 5




BCC - Base-station Color Code


B-CDMA - Broadband Code Division Multiple Access


BCH - Broadcast Channels( carry only downlink information and are mainly responsible for synchronization and frequency correction (BCCH, FCCH and SCH)


BCCH - Brodcast Control Channel
the logical channel used in cellular networks to broadcast signalling and control information to all mobile phones within the network


BGA - ball grid array


B-ISDN - Broadband ISDN


BPS - Bits Per Second
( a measure of how fast binary digits can be sent through a channel. The number of 0s and 1s that travel down the channel per second.)


Base transceiver Station Identity Code


BTS - Base Transceiver Station
(This device allows communication between phones and cellular network or it is the network entity which communicates with the mobile station)


Back -light Illumination
illuminates a wireless device’s display and keypad for better low light viewing
Band :
a specific range of frequencies in the radio frequency (RF) spectrum.


Battery:
A chargeable device which provides the mobile phone with power. A variety of battery technologies have been used for mobile phones including nickel cadmiu(NiCad),nickel metal hydride (NiMH) and lithium ion (Li-ion)
Battery status/Battery charge display
An indication of the amount of battery life remaining
Battery Capacity the capacity of wireless devices’ battery. Measured in milliampere hours (mAh).


Call barring
A service which enables users to bar certain incoming or outgoing calls on their mobile phones


Call timer:
A service which keeps track of the amount of airtime being used by the subscriber on a cumulative basis


Call divert:
The capability to divert incoming calls to another phone (fixed or mobile) or to an answering service


Call hold:
The ability to put an ongoing call on hold whilst answering or making a second call


Caller ID:
Caller Identification (displays the name/number of the person calling a mobile phone. Also known as CLI)


CB - Cell Broadcast


CCCH - Common Control Channels; a group of uplink and downlink channels between the MS and the BTS (see PCH, AGCH and RACH)


CCONT- Current Controller (in nokia fones)


CDMA - Code Division Multiple Access
(Code Division Multiple Access; also known as spread spectrum (or IS-95), CDMA cellular systems utilise a single frequency band for all traffic, differentiating the individual transmissions by assigning them unique codes before transmission. There are a number of variants of CDMA (see W-CDMA, B-CDMA, TD-SCDMA et al)


Cell:
The area covered by a cellular base station. A cell site may sectorise its antennas to service several cells from one locationCell site
The facility housing the transmitters/receivers, the antennas and associated equipment




Cell Site:
a fixed cellular tower and radio antenna that handles communication with subscribers in a particular area or cell. A cellular network is made up of many cell sites, all connected back to the wired phone system.


CF - Call Forwarding


CI - Carrier to Interference ratio


CID - Caller Identification


Circuit switching:


A method used in telecommunications where a temporary dedicated circuit of constant bandwidth is established between two distant endpoints in a network. Mainly used for voice traffic; the opposite of packet switching




CNT- Content






COBBA- Common Baseband Analog


CPU - Central Processing Unit


CMOS - Complementary Metal Oxide Substrate




Codec:
A word formed by combining coder and decoder the codec is a device which encodes and decodes signals. The voice codec in a cellular network converts voice signals into and back from bit strings. In GSM networks, in addition to the standard voice codec, it is possible to implement Half Rate (HR) codecs and Enhanced Full Rate (EFR) codecs


Control signal:
A signal sent to a cellular phone from a base station or vice versa which carries information essential to the call but not including the audio portion of a conversation


CRC - Cyclic Redundancy Check


CT - Cordless Telephony


CTA - Cordless Terminal Adaptor (a DECT term)


CTM - Cordless Terminal Mobility


CTR - Common Technical Regulation


CUG - Closed User Group


D/A - Digital to Analogue conversion


DAC - Digital to Analogue Converter


D-AMPS - Digital AMPS, a US wireless standard also known as IS-136






Data capable:
Mobile phones which have the capability to enable transmission of data from a laptop computer or PDA via the phone


Data cable : interface for connecting a mobile fone to pc


db - decibel (unit if sound)


DCT /3,4 - digital core technology


DCT/L - digital core technology linda


DCCH - Digital Control Channel
DTCH - Digital Traffic Channel
DTX - Discontinuous Transmission Exchange


DCA - Dynamic Channel Assignment


DCCH - Dedicated Control Channels
( responsible for roaming, handovers, encryption etc)


DCE - Data Communications Equipment


DCH - Data Clearing House


DCS1800 - Digital Cellular System at 1800MHz, now known as GSM1800


Digital:
a method of representing information as numbers with discrete values; usually expressed as a sequence of bits
Digital a method of encoding a transmission that involves translating information (in the case of digital phones the information would be a voice conversation) into a series of 0’s and 1’s. Digital communications technology offers cleaner calls without the static and distortion that is common with analog phones. The majority of new handsets sold today are digital rather than analog technology.




DSP - Digital Signal Processor
Digital Signal Processing refers to manipulating analog information, such as sound or photographs that has been converted into a digital form to improve accuracy and reliability of digital communications.




DSC- Digital Signal Controller


DTE - Data Terminal Equipment


DTMF - Dual Tone Multi Frequency;
(better know as Touch Tone. The tones generated by touching the keys on the phone are used for a variety of purposes )


DTX - Discontinuous Transmission


Dual Band:
The capability of GSM infrastructure elements and handsets to work across both the 900MHz and 1800MHz bands. The capability to seamlessly handover between the two bands offers operators major capacity gains


Duplex:
The wireless technique where one frequency band is used for traffic from the network to the subscriber (the downlink) and another, widely separated, band is used for traffic from the subscriber to the network (the uplink)




EEPROM - Electrically Erasable Programmable Read Only Memory


EFR- Enhanced Full Rate
(Enhanced Full Rate (codec): an improved version of the standard voice codec used in GSM phones; offers improved speech quality without impacting on network capacity)


EFT - Electronic Funds Transfer


EGSM - Extended (frequency range) GSM


EIR - Equipment Identity Register (a database that contains a list of all valid mobile stations within a network based on their IMEI)


EIRP - Effective Isotropic Radiated Power


EPOC :
The mobile phone operating system developed by Symbian. Derived from epoch-the beginning of an era-EPOC is a 32-bit operating environment which comprises a suite of applications, customization user interfaces, connectivity options and a range of development tools


EPROM - Erasable Programmable Read Only Memory


ESMR - Enhanced Special Mobile Radio; a US PMR variant (see SMR)


ESN - Electronic Serial Number; a 32-bit number that uniquely identifies a mobile phone




FB - Frequency Correction Burst; used for frequency synchronization of the mobile


FDD - Frequency Division Duplex


FOMA - Freedom Of Mobile multimedia Access


Gbit/s:
A unit of data transmission rate equal to one billion bits per second


GMSC - Gateway Mobile Services Switching Center; the gateway between two networks


GCF - Global Certification Forum


Geostationary:
Refers to a satellite in equatorial orbit above the earth which appears from the surface to be stationary


GERAN - GSM-EDGE Radio Access Network the name for the evolution of GSM towards 3G based on EDGE


GGRF - GSM Global Roaming Forum


GGSN - Gateway GPRS Support Node; the gateway between a cellular network and a IP network.


GHz:
A unit of frequency equal to one billion Hertz per second


GMPCS - Global Mobile Personal Communications by Satellite


GMSK - Gaussian filtered Minimum Shift Keying


GPRS:
General Packet Radio Service (GPRS) is a mobile data service available to users of GSM and IS-136 mobile phones. GPRS data transfer is typically charged per megabyte of transferred data, while data communication via traditional circuit switching is billed per minute of connection time, independently of if the user actually has transferred data or been in an idle state. GPRS can be utilized for services such as WAP access, SMS and MMS, but also for Internet communication services such as email and web access. In the future, it is expected that low cost voice over IP will be made available in cell phones.






GPS:
The Global Positioning System (GPS), is currently the only fully-functional satellite navigation system. More than two dozen GPS satellites are in medium Earth orbit, transmitting signals allowing GPS receivers to determine the receiver's location, speed and direction.






GRX - GPRS Roaming Exchange


GSM


The Global System for Mobile Communications, GSM (original acronym: Groupe Spécial Mobile) is the most popular standard for mobile phones in the world. GSM service is used by over 2 billion people across more than 212 countries and territories.[1][2] The ubiquity of the GSM standard makes international roaming very common between mobile phone operators, enabling subscribers to use their phones in many parts of the world. GSM differs significantly from its predecessors in that both signaling and speech channels are Digital call quality, which means that it is considered a second generation (2G) mobile phone system. This fact has also meant that data communication was built into the system from the 3rd Generation Partnership Project (3GPP).




Hands-free:
The operation of a cellular phone without using the handset; usually installed in vehicles.


Handoff:
The transfer of control of a cellular phone call in progress from one cell to another, without any discontinuity




HR - Half Rate Traffic




IC - Integrated Circuit


ICSP - In Circuit Serial Programming


IF- Intermediate Frequency


Infrared data port:
A facility on a mobile phone to allow information to be exchanged with other devices e.g. a PC using infra red technology


Internet
The Internet is the worldwide, publicly accessible network of interconnected computer networks that transmit data by packet switching using the standard Internet Protocol (IP). It is a "network of networks" that consists of millions of smaller domestic, academic, business, and government networks, which together carry various information and services, such as electronic mail, online chat, file transfer, and the interlinked Web pages and other documents of the World Wide Web.






IMEI - International Mobile Equipment Identity
The International Mobile Equipment Identity (IMEI) is a number unique to every GSM and UMTS mobile phone. It is usually found printed on the phone underneath the battery and can also be found by dialing the sequence *#06# into the phone.


The IMEI number is used by the GSM network to identify valid devices and therefore can be used to stop a stolen phone from accessing the network. For example, if a mobile phone is stolen, the owner can call his or her network provider and instruct them to "ban" the phone using its IMEI number. This renders the phone useless, regardless of whether the phone's SIM is changed.






I-mode:
A service developed by Japanese operator NTT DoCoMo, I-mode delivers a huge range of services to subscribers and has proved enormously popular with some 30 million regular users. The revenue sharing model used for I-mode is being adopted by other operators as the basis for the new services enabled by GPRS and 3G






IMSI - International Mobile Subscriber Identity
(an internal subscriber identity used only by the network)




IP - Internet Protocol




IrDA - Infra red Data Association


Iridium:
A low earth orbit satellite communications system developed initially by Motorola.


ISDN - Integrated Services Digital Network


ISO
International Standards Organisation


ISP - Internet Service Provider


iTAP:
software developed by Motorola and built into some wireless phones and PDAs that makes typing words on a keypad easier. The competitor to iTAP is T9


JAF - Just Another Flasher


Java:
A programming language developed by Sun Micro systems Java is characterized by the fact that programs written in Java do not rely on an operating system


JPEG- Joint Photographic Experts Group


JTAG - Joint Test Action Group


Kbps : Kilobits Per Second, a measure of bandwidth




LAN
Local Area Network


LANS
Local Area Network Services


LED - Light Emitting Diode
(a semiconductor device that illuminates when electricity passes through it. Often used as an indicator light, or to spell out words and numbers. LEDs come in many colors, and some LEDs contain multiple elements and are therefore capable of multiple colors. Provides good visibility in direct sunlight and in darkness)




LPT - Line Print Terminal


LMSS
Land Mobile Satellite Service


Lock
A function on a cellular phone which, when activated, prevents use of the phone until the user enters a security code


LCD - Liquid crystal display






Lithium Ion battery:
a type of rechargeable battery for cell phones which is generally lighter weight than earlier battery types, has a relatively longer cycle life, and generally does not suffer from “memory” effect.


MAC - Media Access Control; the lower sub-layer of the OSI system


MAD - Memory Analog Digital


MAP - Mobile Application Part


Mb- Megabite
( a unit of data transmission speed equal to one million bits per second)




MCC - Mobile Country Code


MCU - Micro Control Unit


MCPA - Multi Carrier Power Amplifier


MHz - Megahertz (a unit of frequency equal to one million Hertz)


MMI - Man Machine Interface


MMS - Multimedia Messaging Service
(an evolution of SMS, MMS goes beyond text messaging offering various kinds of multimedia content including images, audio and video clips)


Modulation:
The process of imposing an information signal on a carrier. This can be done by changing the amplitude (AM), the frequency (FM) or the phase, or any combination of these


MPEG:
Motion Picture Experts Group; MPEG4 is a technology for compressing voice and video so that the information can be transmitted over normally difficult links such as mobile radio


MS - Mobile Station


MSIN - Mobile Station Identification Number


MSISDN - Mobile Station International ISDN Number


MSK - Minimum Shift Keying (Another term for FFSK)


Multiplexing:
A telecommunications technique where several channels can be combined to share the same transmission medium. The most common forms are Time Division Multiplexing (TDM) and Frequency Division Multiplexing (FDM)




Master Reset:
restores the setting to factory


MIDI - Musical Instrument Digital Interface
(a standard that allows digital musical instruments to communicate with one another. In cell phone terms, MIDI is what gives you polyphonic sounds; which means your ring tones can sound like real music instead of beeps. )


MMS - Multimedia Messaging Service
(a further extension of SMS and EMS.MMS is designed to make use of newer and quicker mobile transmission methods such as GPRS, HSCSD, EDGE and UMTS, involving the attachment of multimedia extensions to messages, such as video and sound. An e-mail function is also planned. )


MO-SMS - Mobile-Originated Short Message Service
(the ability to send short text messages from a phone. Both the phone and the carrier’s network must support this feature for it to work. Messages can be sent to other phones by phone number. Many phones also allow sending messages directly to e-mail addresses. )




NCC (National Color Code or Network Color Code


NET
Norme European de Telecommunications




NMSI - National Mobile Subscriber Identity


No Service:
An indication on the display of a cellular phone that indicates that the user is in an area where cellular service is unavailable




OMAP - Open Multimedia Applications Platform


OTP - One Time Programmable




PCM
Pulse Code Modulation; the standard digital voice format at 64kbit/s


PCMCIA
Personal Computer Memory Card Interface Association the body responsible for defining


the standards and formats for memory expansion cards for laptop computers and PDAs. Now


extended to cover cards for mobile phones




PCU
Packet Control Unit; an element in a GPRS/UMTS network


PDA
Personal Digital Assistant




PIN
Personal Identifier Number




PSU
Power Supply Unit




PCN
Personal Communications Networks; an outdated term for GSM services in the 1800MHz band


PDA
Personal Digital Assistant; a sophisticated handheld device with advanced display


facilities and a range of business-oriented software programs


Phone book
A list of personal names and numbers stored in a mobile phone’s internal memory or in


the SIM card. These numbers can be called by accessing the appropriate memory and


making a single key stroke


PIN
Personal Identity Number; a number, usually four digits, that must be keyed into a


mobile phone to make it work. A security measure to prevent unauthorized usage


P-Java (Personal Java) a Java API and specification for running Java applications on


small devices.


Packet a piece of data transmitted over a packet-switching network such as the Internet


or wireless Internet; a packet includes not just data but also its destination.


Packet Switching a type of communication that splits information into “packets” of data


for transmission. This is efficient, as it only uses radio spectrum when it’s actually


sending something, rather than keeping an open channel at all times (as is done in


circuit switching). Packet switching is a core component to 3G technology.


Passive Matrix Display an LCD technology that uses a grid to supply the charge to each


particular pixel on the display. An STN screen has a slower refresh rate than a TFT


screen, but it’s cheaper. Also called a Super Twist Nematic of STN display.


PC Card (PCMCIA) a removable, credit-card sized devices that may be plugged into slots


in PCS and wireless communication devices to provide fax or modem functions or network


cards.


PCMCIA (Personal Computer Memory Card International Association) a group of hardware


manufacturers and vendors responsible for developing standards for PC Cards (also


called PCMCIA cards.)


PCN:


also known as DCS 1800 or GSM 1800, PCN is a term used to describe a wireless


communication technology in Europe and Asia.


PDA (personal digital assistant) a portable, handheld computing device that acts as an


electronic organizer. PDAs are typically used for managing addresses, appointments,


to-do lists and notes, but some newer models support wireless Internet access, e-mail,


and other interactive applications. Also referred to as Handheld Computers. PDAs come


in two major flavors - Palm and Pocket PC.


PIN (Personal Identification Number) a numeric code or password that may be required by


a service provider in order to make outgoing calls or obtain access to certain


applications and data. This code is always associated to a SIM card, not a phone and is


designed to help guard against cellular fraud.


PTT (Push-To-Talk) a two-way communication service that works like a “walkie talkie”.


This feature, found on Motorola iDEN phones from Nextel and Telus Mobility’s Mike,


allow communication in only direction at a time unlike a cell phone that allows for


simultaneous conversations. New PTT systems are now being introduced that use VoIP


technology to provide PTT service digitally over 3G data networks


PUK (Personal Unblocking Code) used to unblock a blocked SIM card, this code is given


during the suBion of a phone


PWR:
represents the on/off (power) key on some wireless devices.




RAM - Random Access Memory


RAP3G- Radio Application Processor 3rd Generations




Reuse:
The assignment of frequencies or channels to cells so that adjoining cells do not use the same frequencies and cause interference whereas more distant cells can use the same frequencies. Reuse expands the capacity of a cellular network by enabling the use of the same channels throughout the network




RF AMP = Radio Frequency Amplifier


RFP - Radio Fixed Part
(equivalent to a base station in a DECT system)


RP - Radio Part


Roaming:
A service unique to GSM which enables a subscriber to make and receive calls when outside the service area of his home network e.g. when travelling abroad


Router:
A device which forwards information in a network on a connection less basis




RT - Remote Terminal


RX :- signal received






SAR - Specific Absorption Rate




S-CDMA - Synchronous CDMA (see CDMA)


SCH - Synchronisation Channel
(downlink only frame synchronisation and identification of base station)


SCP - Switching/Service Control Point


SDCCH - Stand-alone Dedicated Control Channel; communications channel between the MS and the BTS. Used for signalling during call set-up before a TCH is allocated






Security Code:
a numeric code (password) used to prevent unauthorized or accidental alteration of data programmed into wireless phones. The security code can be used by the owner of a phone to change the lock code.




SIM - Subscriber Identity Module
A smart card containing the telephone number of the subscriber, encoded network identification details, the PIN and other user data such as the phone book. A user’s SIM card can be moved from phone to phone as it contains all the key information required to activate the phone




Streaming:
An Internet derived expression for the one-way transmission of video and audio content




Smartphone:
a combination of mobile phone and personal digital assistant


SMS - Short Message Service
(a text message service which enables users to send short messages (160 characters) to other users. A very popular service, particularly amongst young people, with 400 billion SMS messages sent worldwide in 2002)




SP - Service Provider






SRAM - Syncronous Random Access Memory






Standby time:
The length of time a battery can power a mobile phone when it is switched on but not making or receiving calls




Symbian:
A company created by Psion, Nokia, Ericsson and Motorola in 1998 with the aim of developing and standardising an operating system which enable mobile phones from different manufacturers to exchange information
The operating system is known as EPOC. Matsua has subsequently joined Symbian


T.



TACS - Total Access Communications System


TAP - Transferred Account Procedure
(the essential charging methodology for international GSM roaming. There have been four TAP standards, TAP1, TAP2, TAP2+ and TAP3. The latter offers variable record length and is sufficiently flexible to support all future requirements arising from the move to 3G)




TFD : Thin Film Diode
(a type of LCD (Liquid Crystal Display) flat-panel display technology. TFD technology combines the excellent image quality and fast response times of TFT, with the low power consumption and low cost of STN.)


TFT - Thin Film Transistor
(an LCD technology that uses transistors to precisely control the voltage to each liquid crystal cell. This is also referred to as an “active matrix” display. TFT screens offer the best image quality and refresh rates, but at a higher cost.)




Tri-band:
Refers to a mobile phone able to operate on the three internationally designated GSM frequencies- 900, 1800 and 1900MHz


TRX:
Transmitter/receiver (transceiver)
Total Access Communications System (an AMPS variant deployed in a number of countries principally the UK)


Talk-time:
The length of time a battery can power a mobile phone when making or receiving calls




T9 :
software built into some wireless phones and PDAs that makes typing words on a keypad easier. The competitor to T9 is iTAP




Tri-Band fone:
a phone capable of operating on three different digital frequencies (example: 900MHz, 1800MHz and 1900MHz).




U


Upp - Universal power processor


UI - User Interface






UMTS - Universal Mobile Telecommunications System
(the European entrant for 3G; now subsumed into the IMT-2000 family as the WCDMA technology.)


UPN - Universal Personal Number


URL - Uniform Resource Locator( the addressing system of the Internet)


UTRA - Universal Terrestrial Radio Access


USIM - Universal Subscriber Identity Module; the 3G equivalent of the GSM SIM


UWB - Ultra Wide Band




USB - Universal Serial Bus


V..

VBR - Variable Bit Rate




VCO - Voltage Control Oscillator


VHE - Virtual Home Environment


VLR - Visitor Location Register


Vocoder - Voice coder


VoIP - Voice over Internet Protocol


VPN - Virtual Private Network


VSAT - Very Small Aperture Terminal


VSELP - Vector Sum Excited Linear Prediction


VSLI- Very Large Scale Integration


Voicemail:
A service offered by network operators whereby calls received when the mobile is in use, switched off or out of coverage can be diverted to an answering service which can be personalised by the user




WAP - Wireless Application Protocol
(Wireless Application Protocol; a de facto standard for enabling mobile phones to access the Internet and advanced services. Users can access websites and pages which have been converted by the use of WML into stripped-down versions of the original more suitable for the limited display capabilities of mobile phones)






WASP - Wireless Application Service Provider




Web clipping:
this is an application that allows a user to extract relevant information from a web page for display on a smart phone or a PDA.


Wi-Fi Wireless Fidelity, the popular term for the 802.11b wireless Ethernet standard.






Windows CE:
a streamlined version of Windows from Microsoft for handheld computers which has since been upgraded and renamed Pocket PC. Windows CE run Pocket versions of Microsoft office applications such as Word and Excel as well as many applications that were geared specifically for the smaller platform.


WLAN - Wireless Local Area Network
a short range radio network normally deployed in traffic hotspots such as airport lounges, hotels and restaurants. WLAN enables suitably equipped users to access the fixed network wireless
 
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